Abstract: Control of CO 2 emissions which is the main factor of global warming is one of the most important problems in the 21st century about preservation of earth environment. Therefore, efficient supply and use of energy are indispensable. We have proposed distributed energy management systems (DEMSs), where we are to obtain optimal plans that minimize both of costs and of CO 2 emissions through electrical and thermal energy trading. A DEMS consists of the plural entities that seek their own economic profits. In this paper, we propose a trading method that gives competitive equilibrium resource distribution by applying the market-oriented programming (MOP) to DEMSs
This topic discusses energy planning in a small district composed of a set of corporate entities.
Although the term “energy planning” has a number of different meanings, the energy planning in this chapter stands for ﬁnding a set of energy sources and conversion devices so as to meet the energy…
Alzheimer’s disease and major depression are representative diseases that present forgetfulness and a depressive mood. It is often difficult to make a differential diagnosis between the two in the initial phase. Aim To evaluate the differential diagnosis method using regional cerebral blood flow patterns with a three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection technique. Methods Twenty early-elderly patients with mild and moderate forgetfulness were studied. Among them, 10 were diagnosed as having major depression (the MD group) and the other 10 as having Alzheimer’s disease (the AD group). All patients underwent cerebral perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with [123I]iodoamphetamine. A z-score was calculated for each pixel of the cerebral surface. Twenty-one circular regions of interest (ROIs) were placed on the z-score map. The significance of the statistical difference in ROI values between the two groups was determined by using the two-sided Mann–Whitney U-test. Results The z-scores for the lateral parietal, lateral temporal, bilateral precuneus and bilateral posterior cingulate gyrus were significantly reduced in the AD group compared with those in the MD group. The z-scores for the lateral frontal, left thalamus and bilateral medial frontal regions were significantly lower in the MD group than in the AD group. Our study demonstrated a difference in regional cerebral blood flow patterns between the early elderly with Alzheimer’s disease and those with major depression. All patients were classified into the appropriate categories using discriminant analysis and z-scores of frontal and parietal regions. Brain perfusion SPECT was a useful tool for the differential diagnosis between Alzheimer’s disease and major depression.
Alzheimer’s disease is the most common form of dementia, and accounts for approximately 60% of old age dementias . It is estimated that it afflicts 5–10% of the population over 65 years of age, and is responsible for the most striking rise in the incidence of dementia in the very…
The aim of this investigation was to compare the QGS determined functional parameters using prefiltering to that using post-filtering in the gated myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) reconstruction process. Methodology A total of 25 patient files were examined, each with both a gated rest and gated stress study, and were reconstructed using two strategies. The first employed pre-filtering with a Butterworth low pass filter (order 4.0 and cut-off 0.21) and the second employed postfiltering with a Butterworth low pass filter (order 5.0 and cut-off 0.21). Following reconstruction and reorientation, gated short axis slices were evaluated with QGS software. Results The mean ejection fraction for the post-filtered data was 49.5% (95% CI, 45.8–53.1%) and for the prefiltered data was 54.8% (95% CI, 51.4–58.1%). Excellent correlation was demonstrated between the pre- and postfiltered ejection fractions with a correlation coefficient of 0.964. The mean difference between matched pairs of preand post-filtered ejection fraction data was 5.3% (95% CI, 4.3–6.3%). The match pair t-test demonstrated a statistically significant difference between matched pairs (P<0.0001) and a statistically significant difference was shown between the means (P=0.005). Conclusion The impact of performing pre-filtering on data in the reconstruction process is significant with a 5.3% increase in the calculated ejection fraction over post-filtering. Clearly, this has the potential to undermine diagnostic and prognostic roles of functional parameters.
Introduction Gated myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was developed in the late 1980s with the initial role of differentiating artefact from pathology . The high count density of 99mTc based myocardial perfusion studies allows SPECT images to be synchronized to the patient’s electrocardiogram (gated) because they maintain…
The text organize the criminal law into a traditional scheme that is widely accepted and can embrace, with minor adjustments, the criminal law of any state and/ or the federal government. The logic of the arrangement is first to cover the general part of the criminal law, namely principles and doctrines common to all or most crimes, and then the special part of criminal law, namely the application of the general principles to the elements of specific crimes. The general part of criminal law: the nature, origins, structure, sources, and purposes of criminal law and criminal punishment; the constitutional limits on the criminal law; the general principles of criminal liability; the defenses of justification and excuse; parties to crime and vicarious liability; and incomplete crimes (attempt, conspiracy, and solicitation). The special part of the criminal law: the major crimes against persons; crimes against homes and property; crimes against public order and morals; and crimes against the state. Criminal Law has always followed the three-step analysis of criminal liability (criminal conduct, justification, and excuse). Criminal Law brings this analysis into sharp focus in two ways. First, the chapter sequence: The general principles of criminal conduct (criminal act, criminal intent, concurrence, and causation). The defenses of justification, the second step in the analysis of criminal liability. The defenses of excuse, the third step. So, the chapter sequence mirrors precisely the three-step analysis of criminal liability. Criminal Law also sharpens the focus on the three-step analysis through the Elements of Crime art. The design is consistent throughout the chapters involving the special part of criminal law. All three of these steps are included in each “Elements of Crime” graphic, but elements that are not required in certain crimes — like crimes that don’t require a “bad” result — are grayed out. The new figures go right to the core of the three-step analysis of criminal liability, making it easier for students to master the essence of criminal law: applying general principles to specific individual crimes.
“Welcome to Miami, you’re under arrest!” This is what a Miami, Florida, police officer, who was a student in my criminal justice class, told me that billboards at the city limits of this South Beach suburb should read. “Why,” I asked? “Because everything in Miami is a crime,” he laughingly…
Abstract: The life cycle of the nuclear industry is no different to that of any other industry, indeed to most forms of human activity: birth, growth, maturity, decline, rebirth and renewal or death. The nineteenth century industries such as railways, chemical manufacture, steel production have experienced the full cycle whilst newer industries such as space, aviation and nuclear are only part way through. Economic development and economic needs depend where any industrial sector of a country is found on the life cycle. For the nuclear industry, some countries are at the stage of maturity; some have entered the stage of decline and are contemplating whether to favour renewal or to close the industry; others are just starting out with new build. Although the life cycle might be a common factor of industrial activity, each industry has its own distinguishing, unique features that set it apart from the others. The nuclear energy sector is characterised by long time scales and technical excellence. The early nuclear plants were designed to operate for 30 years; today the expected lifetime is 50–60 years. When a nuclear plant is closed, decommissioning and decontamination may last as long as its operational lifespan, possibly longer. From cradle to grave may be in excess of 100 years. The rapid technical evolution of the industry would not have been possible without myriad high-quality research and development programmes. Through such programmes and through the associated links with universities and research institutes have come not only technical knowledge but also the technically competent staff necessary for the safe running of the industry. As a result of the twin facets of long time scales and essential technical competence the industry now faces two problems: how to retain existing skills and competences for the 50 plus years that a plant is operating when the industry in that country may be in a position of maturity or decline on the life cycle and no further build is imminent and how to develop and retain new skills and competences in the areas of decommissioning and radioactive waste management when the latter are seen as “sunset” activities and are unappealing to many young people. These problems are exacerbated by the increasing deregulation of energy markets around the world. The nuclear industry is now required to reduce its costs dramatically in order to compete with generators that have different technology life cycle profiles to its own. In many countries, government funding has been dramatically reduced or has disappeared altogether while the profit margins of generators have been severely squeezed. The result has been lower electricity prices but also the loss of expertise as a result of downsizing to reduce salary costs, a loss of research facilities to reduce operating costs and a decline in support to the university in order to reduce overheads. All of which has led to a reduction in technical innovation and a loss of technical competences and skills. However, because different countries are at different stages of the nuclear technology life cycle, these losses are not common to all countries, either in their nature or their extent; a competence that may have declined or be lost in one country may be strong in another. And therein lies one solution to the problems the sector faces — international collaboration.
The OECD/NEA report Nuclear Education and Training: Cause for Concern? published in July 2000, quantified, for the first time, the status of nuclear education in member countries. It confirmed what many had long suspected: that, in most countries, nuclear education had declined to the point that expertise and competence in core nuclear technologies were becoming increasingly difficult to sustain. Although the overall situation appeared bleak, some encouragement could be gained from the diverse range of initiatives that were identified. If they were not responsible for an expansion in nuclear education and training, they were at least arresting its rate of decline. With the objective of building on these existing initiatives and stimulating new ones, the report made a number of recommendations to government, universities, industry and research institutes.
The reaction of governments has been varied. Some have launched, or supported, a variety of initiatives, often based on their own further studies of nuclear education and manpower requirements. Others have not undertaken any initiatives at all. This may be because they prefer to let the nuclear sector respond to…
Abstract: For a realistic 18F simulation of dosimetry purposes, the preconfigured ‘Fluor18’ source, which simulates the positrons emission spectrum, should be used with all physical process of radiation interaction with matter. In conclusion, GATE application is a reliable and friendly environment for dose estimation in nuclear medicine imaging. GATE application (Geant4 Application for Emission Tomography) provides a series of tools that allow the collection of data from the interaction of radiation with matter during simulation, such as energy deposited and particles created within a volume, among others. The objective of this work is to evaluate the impact of the dose element size on the simulation of the absorbed dose in an attenuating medium in GATE application, using 99mTc and 18F point sources. The influence of the dose map elements (dosel) size was investigated on the absorbed dose, as well as the impact of different source configurations. The results show that a matrix with larger voxels underestimates the absorbed dose values, especially when closer to the source. Thus, for a more accurate dosimetry it is recommended to use smaller dosels near the source. In relation to 18F simulation, they must be performed with the source preset as ‘Fluor18’, so all physical processes can be properly considered. It is concluded that the GATE application is a reliable environment for dose estimation in nuclear medicine imaging, allowing the investigation and selection of the most relevant radiation interaction processes with the material to perform internal dosimetry.
The GATE application (Geant4 Application for Emission Tomography) provides a series of tools that allow the collection of data on the interaction of radiation with matter during the simulation, such as the energy deposited and the particles created within a volume, among others. The objective of this work is to…
This is a Research case at the Faculty of Law, University of Oslo; Visiting Fellow at Stanford University; Visiting Professor, Georgetown University; and Co-ordinator of the ICC Legal Tools Project. The author formerly served as Senior Legal Adviser and Chief of the Legal Advisory Section of the ICC Office of the Prosecutor. **Associate Professor in Law and Head of the International Criminal Justice Unit, Human Rights Law Centre, University of Nottingham, one of the Legal Tools Outsourcing Partners (firstname.lastname@example.org). ***PhD candidate at the University of Nottingham and Senior Research Fellow of the Legal Tools Outsourcing Partners’ Network. 1 International Criminal Court, ‘Legal Tools History’, available at: http://www.legal-tools.org/ en/what-are-the-icc-legal-tools/2003–2005/ .
The Legal Tools of the International Criminal Court (ICC or ‘the Court’) are new technologies which facilitate the administration of criminal justice for atrocities by improving effectiveness and enhancing the capacity of criminal justice institutions to investigate, prosecute and adjudicate core international crimes. This article will introduce the ICC’s Legal…
Abstract: The process capability index (PCI) is a value which reflects real-time quality status. The PCI acts as the reference for real-time monitoring that enables process controllers to acquire a better grasp of the quality of their on site processes. The PCI value is typically defined as the ability to carry out a task or achieve a goal. However, simply increasing the PCI value can easily create additional and unnecessary production costs that result from extra efforts and expensive devices for ensuring tolerance control. Hence, there is a need to balance customer demands for quality and production costs. In this regard, the off-line PCI value is intro- duced, in consideration of quality loss and production cost, simultaneously in this research. The quality loss is expressed by quality loss function, and the production cost is represented by tolerance cost function. Then, this new PCI expression can be used as linkage for concurrent product design and process planning, prior to actual production.
“Process capability index — real-time quality status production cost — off-line — tolerance cost function, concurrent product design”
The first Gulf war increased the attention given to cyclosarin (GF), previously considered a nerve agent of secondary importance, while further development work has been done on newer oxime nerve agent treatments, such as HI-6. In addition, a considerable amount of work has been carried out on the skin effects of sulphur mustard. The terrorist incidents using nerve agents, which took place in 1994 and 1995 in Japan, kindled a considerable amount of interest in other countries and gave rise to a number of symposia, such as the seminar on responding to the consequences of chemical and biological terrorism held at Bethesda, Maryland, in July 1995. Subsequent events, such as the 9/11 attacks in New York and Washington and the Bali, Madrid and London tube bombings, none of which involved chemical agents, have increased the attention given to the possibility of the use of chemicals by Al-Qaida and other groups. The possibility of the terrorist use of chemical weapons means that the management of civilian casualties has to be considered. Previously, management of chemical casualties has generally been in the context of military personnel, who may be protected physically and in some cases, by pharmacological preparations, against chemical warfare agents, and who will in any case usually be young and physically fit. Civilian casualties, by contrast, may include the infirm, the elderly and children. In addition, armed forces may have in place procedures for dealing with chemical attacks, whereas, until recently, that was not the case for civilians. Most western countries now have in place some procedures to deal with civilian casualties in the event of a terrorist attack using chemicals. However, many problems remain, including, for example, the need for mass decontamination after an incident. This and other topics receive special attention. It is now about ninety years since chemical weapons were used on a large scale during World War I. That these weapons still pose a threat to both civilians and military personnel says little for mankind’s socio-political progress. We hope this may stand as a small memorial to his work in this area.
Disclaimer: The use of chemical weapons is prohibited by a number of international treaties or conventions. This illegality is said to confirm and codify a customary prohibition based on concepts of ethics and morals. Despite these prohibitions, and unlike other weapon systems also prohibited, the number of countries which have acquired or which are acquiring chemical weapons continues to increase. It might be argued that this is explained, in part, by the lack of force of international agreements resulting from their being based upon false assertions and their being established largely as a result of vigorous propaganda exercises in the aftermath of a world war. Current international moves to abandon chemical weapons may well be brought to a successful conclusion but, with the lack of a sound and persuasive argument against the use of such weapons, it remains very unwise to assume that clandestine production of such weapons will not be attempted and that they will not be used during a war. In addition, the lack of a sound ethical compulsion to desist from using such weapons may very likely lead to their proliferation and use in the so called Third World conflicts, particularly among nations with no memory of WWI.
The purpose of classification is to protect information. Higher classifications protect information that might endanger national security. Classification formalises what constitutes a “state secret” and accords different levels of protection based on the expected damage the information might cause in the wrong hands.
However, classified information is frequently “leaked” to reporters by officials for political purposes. Several U.S. presidents have leaked sensitive information to get their point across to the public. A formal security clearance is required to view or handle classified documents or to access classified data. The clearance process requires a satisfactory background investigation. Documents and other information must be properly marked “by the author” with one of several (hierarchical) levels of sensitivity — e.g. restricted, confidential, secret and top secret. The choice of level is based on an impact assessment; governments have their own criteria, which include how to determine the classification of an information asset, and rules on how to protect information classified at each level. This often includes security clearances for personnel handling the information. Although “classified information” refers to the formal categorization and marking of material by level of sensitivity, it has also developed a sense synonymous with “censored” in US English. A distinction is often made between formal security classification and privacy markings such as “commercial in confidence”. Classifications can be used with additional keywords that give more detailed instructions on how data should be used or protected. Some corporations and non-government organizations also assign levels of protection to their private information, either from a desire to protect trade secrets, or because of laws and regulations governing various matters such as personal privacy, sealed legal proceedings and the timing of financial information releases. With the passage of time much classified information can become a bit less sensitive, or becomes much less sensitive, and may be declassified and made public. Since the late twentieth century there has been freedom of information legislation in some countries, whereby the public is deemed to have the right to all information that is not considered to be damaging if released. Sometimes documents are released with information still considered confidential obscured (redacted), as in the adjacent example. The question exists among some political science and legal experts, whether the definition of classified ought to be information that would cause injury to the cause of justice, human rights, etc., rather than information that would cause injury to the national interest, to distinguish when classifying information is in the collective best interest of a just society or merely the best interest of a society acting unjustly, to protect its people, government, or administrative officials from legitimate recourses consistent with a fair and just social contract.