The first Gulf war increased the attention given to cyclosarin (GF), previously considered a nerve agent of secondary importance, while further development work has been done on newer oxime nerve agent treatments, such as HI-6. In addition, a considerable amount of work has been carried out on the skin effects of sulphur mustard. The terrorist incidents using nerve agents, which took place in 1994 and 1995 in Japan, kindled a considerable amount of interest in other countries and gave rise to a number of symposia, such as the seminar on responding to the consequences of chemical and biological terrorism held at Bethesda, Maryland, in July 1995. Subsequent events, such as the 9/11 attacks in New York and Washington and the Bali, Madrid and London tube bombings, none of which involved chemical agents, have increased the attention given to the possibility of the use of chemicals by Al-Qaida and other groups. The possibility of the terrorist use of chemical weapons means that the management of civilian casualties has to be considered. Previously, management of chemical casualties has generally been in the context of military personnel, who may be protected physically and in some cases, by pharmacological preparations, against chemical warfare agents, and who will in any case usually be young and physically fit. Civilian casualties, by contrast, may include the infirm, the elderly and children. In addition, armed forces may have in place procedures for dealing with chemical attacks, whereas, until recently, that was not the case for civilians. Most western countries now have in place some procedures to deal with civilian casualties in the event of a terrorist attack using chemicals. However, many problems remain, including, for example, the need for mass decontamination after an incident. This and other topics receive special attention. It is now about ninety years since chemical weapons were used on a large scale during World War I. That these weapons still pose a threat to both civilians and military personnel says little for mankind’s socio-political progress. We hope this may stand as a small memorial to his work in this area.